About lsstuhler

Linda Stuhler is a Genealogy Geek from Rochester, New York, who loves to find out the facts. She has been researching her family tree for twenty years and has accumulated an abundance of information on various subjects that she enjoys sharing on her blog at: https://inmatesofwillard.com/. She was responsible for the creation of the New York State Senate Bill S840, initiated in August 2011, which allows for the release of the names, dates of birth and death, of former patients who were buried in anonymous graves in New York State Custodial Institutions. The bill was changed from the original draft to S840A and does not work the way it was intended. It became a law on August 18, 2016, but it did not include provisions for a searchable database available to the public as New York State lawmakers and the Office of Mental Health believed that if they did so, they would be sued. Although she rarely gets the credit for her efforts, without her and her blog, the word would never have made it out to the general public. She is the author of "THE INMATES OF WILLARD 1870 TO 1900, A GENEALOGY RESOURCE."

1886 Hayt’s Corner’s, Ovid & Willard Rail-Road

By 1917, the “Willard” train stopped at every building on the 1,000 acre complex. The beautiful photographs below, from the year 1886, are from the book Pictorial Album of The Willard Asylum 1869 – 1886 by Wayne E. Morrison. (Originally posted January 9, 2013).

1 A Work Train Transporting Patients

1 A Work Train Transporting Patients

Hayt’s Corners, Ovid & Willard Railroad
On September 15, 1882, this railroad was chartered to run from the Hayt’s Corners Station of the Geneva, Ithaca & Sayre Railroad, an affiliate of the Lehigh Valley, to Ovid, seat of Seneca County (2 miles), and Willard, site of the Willard State Hospital (5 miles). The promoters, led by George W. Jones, lacked funds to complete the line, and arranged for it to be leased to the GI&S for 99 years. This was to bring it into the LehighValley system from its opening in May 1883. The line was dual gauge from the outset, laid with 3’-0” rail for conformity with some trackage built on the hospital grounds in 1877-78 to switch coal to hospital facilities from steamboats or barges on Seneca Lake.”
(SOURCE: Hilton, George Woodman, American Narrow Gauge Railroads, Stanford University Press, 1990, page 454).

2 Another View Of The Above

2 Another View Of The Above

“…An efficient auxiliary in the management of the asylum was the rail-road from Seneca Lake to the Branch, serving also the Main Building and Detached Buildings No. 1 and 3, constructed and brought into regular use in 1878. A steam locomotive and six freight and coal cars are upon the tracks, performing in a very satisfactory manner the work for which the line was constructed, and an actual saving of expense to an establishment so large and extended. With side tracks and turn-outs, it is over two miles in length, and cost including construction and equipment about $19,000. A brick engine-house for use and shelter of the locomotive was erected at the same time.”
(SOURCE: Morrison, Wayne E., Pictorial Album of The Willard Asylum 1869 – 1886, 1978).

3 The Rail-Road East Of The Main Building

3 The Rail-Road East Of The Main Building

“REPORT OF THE RAILROAD COMMISSIONERS.
HAYTS CORNERS. OVID AND WILLARD. Lessor.
Lessee – LehighValley Railway.
(Date of charter, September 15, 1882.)
The Hayts Corners, Ovid and Willard railroad was organized in 1882, and articles of association filed in the Secretary of State’s office September 15, 1882. The right of way was purchased by subscription; the grading was done by the able-bodied inmates of the Willard Insane Asylum, pursuant to an act, chapter 362, Laws of 1882. The roadbed was then leased to the Geneva, Ithaca and Sayre Railroad Company, said road to iron, fence and operate said road. Said company have conformed to the requirements of the lease and are now operating the road.

4 The John, Private Car Of Gen'L. Magee, Lehigh Valley R.R.

4 The John, Private Car Of Gen’L. Magee, Lehigh Valley R.R.

Capital Stock.
Authorized by law or charter – (Common) Number of Shares 400; Par Value $40,000
Issued for actual cash and now outstanding – (Common) Number of Shares 41; Par Value $4,100

5 The Supply Train

5 The Supply Train

Cost of Road.
Land and land damages – Total cost up to June 30, 1892 – $2,278.52

6 Charles Beach, Conductor, H.C., O. & W. Rail-Road

6 Charles Beach, Conductor, H.C., O. & W. Rail-Road

Officers of the Company.
Name. Title. Official Address.
James B. Thomas, President, Ovid, N. Y.
William Jones, Treasurer, Ovid, N. Y.
John F. Covert, Secretary, Ovid, N. Y.

7 Passenger Train No. 5, Hayts Cor's., Ovid & Willard Rail-Road

7 Passenger Train No. 5, Hayts Cor’s., Ovid & Willard Rail-Road

Directors of the Company.
Name. Residence.
George W. Jacacks, Geneva, N. Y.
James B. Thomas, Ovid, N. Y.
William Jones, Ovid, N. Y.
William C. Hazleton, Ovid, N. Y.
Charles V. Sutton, Ovid, N. Y.
John Denniston, Ovid, N. Y.
Alden Horton, Ovid, N. Y.
John K. Covert Ovid, N. Y.
Silas M. Kinne, Ovid, N. Y.
Herman D. Eastman, Lodi, N. Y.
Abram B. Johnson, Hayts Corners, N. Y.
John B. Chapin, Philadelphia, Pa.

8 Private Car Of The Sup't., Lehigh Valley Rail-Road

8 Private Car Of The Sup’t., Lehigh Valley Rail-Road

Title of company, Hayts Corners, Ovid and Willard Railroad Company.
General offices at Ovid, N. Y.
Date of close of fiscal year, September 22.
For information concerning this report, address James B. Thomas, President.”

(SOURCE: Tenth Annual Report Of The Board Of Railroad Commissioners Of The State Of New York, For The Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1892. Transmitted to the Legislature January 9, 1893. Commissioners: Samuel A. Beardsley, Michael Rickard, Alfred C. Chapin, Volume II, Albany: James B. Lyon, State Printer, 1893, Page 278).

9 The Hayts Cor's., Ovid & Willard Train

9 The Hayts Cor’s., Ovid & Willard Train

10 The Baldwin Rail-Road Engine

10 The Baldwin Rail-Road Engine

10 The Baldwin Rail-Road Engine

11 Engine-House, Barn & Coal Tressle.

12 At Work On The Embankment

12 At Work On The Embankment

13 Workmen Broadening The Embankment

13 Workmen Broadening The Embankment

The Social Welfare History Project 12.10.2014

This was a previously posted page that I have decided to turn into a post. The only thing that makes me sad is that Dr. Hansan removed much of my commentary before he “reprinted” my research. Keep in mind that historical research takes hours and hours of reading and transcribing. It was not an easy task but well worth the effort. ALL of these blog posts can be found on this blog in their original form.

“I am very proud and honored that John E. Hansan, Ph.D., creator of THE SOCIAL WELFARE HISTORY PROJECT website, has chosen to share 24 articles from my blog, THE INMATES OF WILLARD. I don’t normally blow my own horn, but what the hell, I’m thrilled that my research has been shared on this educational website. Thank You, Dr. Hansan! (Page Created 12.10.2014)

The Social History Welfare History Project

The Social Welfare History Project

The Social Welfare History Project – Contributor Bio – Linda S. Stuhler 11.11.2013.
Middletown State Homeopathic Hospital: New York – 1891 1.20.2014.
Our New York State Charities: 1873 1.18.2013.
The Willard Asylum for the Insane: Steward’s Report 1900 1.18.2014.
New York State Charities Aid Association: 1873 1.6.2014.
Colony For Epileptics: 1914 12.3.2013.
New York State Care System For The Insane Completed: 1896 1.18.2014.
Deportation of the Insane Aliens: 1907 1.14.2014.
Schuyler, Louisa Lee 1.3.2014.
Syracuse State Institution For Feeble-Minded Children: 1916 12.3.2013.
Care of the Filthy Cases of Insane: 1885 11.23.2013.
State Care of the Insane: New York 1901 11.22.2013.
Hammond, Dr. William A. 11.21.2013.
New York State’s County Poor Houses: 1864 11.20.2013.
The Care Of The Insane In New York (1736 – 1912) 11.18.2013.
After Care for the Insane: New York State 1906 11.22.2013.
Chapin, John B., M.D., LL.D. 11.21.2013.
Hoyt, Dr. Charles S. 11.21.2013.
A Brief History of Government Charity in New York (1603 – 1900) 11.18.2013.
The Eugenic Value of Birth Control Propaganda 11.18.2013.
Willard, Sylvester D. 11.12.2013.
Kirkbride, Thomas Story 11.11.2013.
Scientific Charity Movement and Charity Organization Societies 11.10.2013.
Brigham, Amariah 11.12.2013.
Poor House Conditions: Albany County, New York – 1864 11.11.2013.”

A Brief History of Charity in New York 1603 to 1900

A Brief History of Charity in New York State as it relates to the creation of
Public Work Houses, County Poor Houses, Insane Asylums, Orphan Asylums,
Houses of Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents, Care of Aged, Decrepit and Mentally Enfeebled Persons who are Not Insane, Indigent Children, etc. Many appropriations for The Willard Insane Asylum are included as well.
Researched by Linda S. Stuhler – October 21, 2011

I have reprinted some outlines and a few passages from Documents of The Senate of the State of New York, One Hundred and Twenty Seventh Session, 1904, (compiled by Edward H. Leggett, Esq. of the Attorney General’s office and his assistant, Mr. Wellington D. Ives, Chief Clerk in the office of the Board of Charities), that shows the history of charity for the poor in New York State from 1603 to 1900.

Coldbath Fields Treadmill - Wikipedia

Coldbath Fields Treadmill – Wikipedia

The Dutch Colony of New Netherland from 1603 to 1664

“Comparatively little of importance has been found with relation to the administration of charity under the Dutch in the colony of New Netherland. Not, however, that ordinances and customs did not exist, following those of the mother country, but the records are fragmentary and give a partial view only of the charitable work of the colony. Possibly many of the missing records were part of the documents of the Dutch West India Company, which it is said, were sold at public auction in 1821, and could not be found when Mr. John Romeyn Brodhead, the agent of this State, made his investigation in 1841-43 of the archives of the Hague in search of material relating to the History of New Netherland. The following chronological references to Dutch ordinances and documents relating to the relief of the poor are taken from various works relating to the history of the early colonial settlements in this State, to which credit is given in each case:

1630–1635 – Poor people not permitted to participate in the exemptions, privileges and freedoms granted to the patroons.

1649 – Poor supported by collections in the churches, fines and voluntary offerings-No hospitals or asylums for children or for old men.

1650 – No asylums for children or the aged in New Netherland.

1651 – In order not to subject the poor to inconvenience, particular inhabitants requesting it may be privileged to lay in small beer free of excise with liberty to retail the same at a reasonable advance by small measure. (“Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland.” P. 122. O’Callaghan.)

1652 – The Director-General grants site for almshouse at Beaverwyck (Albany.) (“Annals of Albany,” Vol. VII, pp. 232, 233. Munsell)

1653 – Burgomasters were ex officio the chief rulers of the city; the principal church wardens, guardians of the poor and of widows and orphans. They held in trust all city property and managed the same. (“History of New Netherland.” Vol. 2, p. 211. O’Callaghan.)

Schepens (city magistrates) provided for the burial of friendless strangers. (“History of New Netherland.” Vol. 2, p. 212. O’Callaghan.)

1654 – Dependent children sent from the almshouse at Amsterdam to New Netherland.

The Director General and Council resolve to hire a house in New Amsterdam, and lodge there the children sent over by the poormasters from Holland. (“Documents Relating to the History of the Early Colonial Settlements.” Vol. XIV, p. 296. Fernow.)

1655 – More dependent children sent from the almshouse at Amsterdam, in Holland, to New Netherland.

Goats found south of the “fresh water” to be seized and sold for the benefit of the poor. (“Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland.” P. 201. O’ Callaghan.)

One-third of penalty for firing guns or planting May poles on New Years and May days to go to support of the poor. (“Laws and Ordinances of New Nether land.” P. 205. O’ Callaghan.)

1656 – One-third of certain penalties to be applied to support of the poor. (“Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland.” P. 263. O’Callaghan.)

1658 – Children from almshouse in Holland arrived and being in demand, were all bound and others requested to be sent over. In New Netherland, men of large families when they die ‘do not leave a stiver behind. The public must provide the coffin, pay all the debts and feed or maintain those who survive.” (“Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York.” Vol. II, p. 52. O’Callaghan.)

1661 – First law enacted in New Netherland providing for the support of the poor. (Passed 22 October 1661).” (Senate Pages 3-9).”

THE ENGLISH COLONY OF NEW YORK 1664 TO 1776

The earliest English laws governing the administration of affairs, charitable and otherwise, in the Colony of New York are known as the “Duke of York’s Laws.” These laws were “Establisht by the Authority of his Majesties Letters patents, granted to his Royall Highnes James Duke of Yorke and Albany: Bearing Date the 12th Day of March in the sixteenth year of ye Raigne of our Sovereign Lord King Charles the Second. Digested into one Volume for the publicke use of the Territoryes in America under the Government of his Royall Highnesse. Collected out of the Several Laws now in force in his Majesties American Colonyes and Plantations.

Published March the 1st Anno Domini 1664 at a General meeting at Hemsted upon Longe Island by virtue of a Commission from his Royall Highnesse James Duke of Yorke and Albany given to Colonell Richard Nicolls Deputy Governor, bearing date the Second day of Aprill 1664.

These and other Colonial laws of New York from the year 1664 to the Revolution were republished by the State of New York in 1894, and the volume and page references herein given relate to the volumes and pages of such republication.

1664 – Bond slavery of Christians forbidden, but not to prejudice indenture nor taking as apprentice. Eight overseers to provide for church and poor. Certain penalties to be applied to support of poor.

1665 – Disbursements for the poor and the support of the poorhouse at Albany. Distracted persons to be provided for by contributions from each town in the riding. Persons holding in trust property of orphans to render inventory annually Disbursements for the poor and the support of the poorhouse at Albany.

1671 – Deacons of the Reformed Christian church complain to the Mayor’s court of the administration of charity by the deacons of the Lutheran church.

1678 – “Noe beggars but all poore cared ffor.” (From Answers of inquiries of New York Rec’d from Sr Edm. Andros on the 16th of Apr 1678.” “Documentary History of New York.” Vol. I, page 62. O’Callaghan.)

1683 – Provides for care of poor, and prevention and discouragement of vagabondage.

1684 – Persons holding in trust property of orphans, to render inventory annually to court of sessions. Provides penalty for stealing by apprentices.

1687 – Towns and counties maintain their own poor and no vagabonds or beggars allowed in the Province of New York.

1691 – Public workhouses directed to be provided by Governor Fletcher.

“You are to endeavor with the assistance of our Councill to provide for the raising and building of Publique Work Houses in convenient Places for the employing of Poor and Indigent People.” (Instructions to Governor Benjamin Fletcher of the Province of New York from Lord Nottingham by Her Majesty’s command, March 17, 1691. “Documents Relative to the Colonial History of New York,” Vol. III, page 824.)

1695 – Annual appointment of five overseers of the poor and public works in New York city and defining their duties relative to the support of the poor.

1697 – Public workhouses directed to be provided by Governor Bellomont.

“You are to endeavor with the Assistance of the Councill to provide for the raising and building of public workhouses in convenient places for the employing of poor and indigent people.” (Instructions to Governor Richard Bellomont of the Province of New York from His Majesty by James Vernon, August 31, 1697. “Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York.” Vol. IV., page 290.)

1699 – No such thing as a beggar in New York.

“A Bill to enforce the building of publick workhouses (which is another instruction from his Majesty) to imploy the poor and also vagabonds I offered to the Assembly, but they smiled at it, because indeed there is no such as a beggar in this town or country: and I believe there is not a richer populace any where in the King’s dominions than is in this Town.” (From the Earl of Bellomont to the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, April the 27th 1699.

“Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New York.” Vol. IV, page 511. O’Callaghan.)

1701 – Repeals former statutes and provides that each town or parish shall care for its own poor. Justices of the peace to audit accounts.

1702 – Provides for the care of the poor in New York city, and limits annual amount to be raised for such purpose to 300 (pounds).

Act for the better maintenance of the poor in New York.

Making provision for the execution of poor felons and the burial of the poor.

1703 – Explaining previous laws relating to the poor and vagabonds. “An Act for the better Explaining and more Effectual putting in Execucon An Act of General Assembly made in the third yeare of the Reign of their late Majties King Wm. and Queen Mary Entituled An Act for defraying of the Publick and necessary Charge thro’out this Province and for mainteining the Poor and preventing Vagabonds.

1708 – Surplus of penalties collected in suppressing immorality given to the overseers of the poor for support of the poor.

1719 – Certain part of penalties collected by pound keepers to be applied to support of the poor.

1721 – Vagrant and idle persons to be apprehended, brought before a justice of the peace or mayor, and returned to their lawful settlements.

Providing for the equitable assessment of taxes for the support of the minister and the poor in New York, Queens, Richmond and Westchester counties.

1729 – Moiety of certain penalties to he paid to overseers to be applied to the support of the poor.

1732 – An act for the speedy punishing and releasing of vagrant and idle persons. Moiety of certain penalties to be applied to the support of the poor.

1737 – An act to restrain tavern keepers from selling liquors to servants and apprentices. Moiety of penalty for peddling without a license to go to support of the poor.

Moiety of sales and fines on impounded swine to be applied to support of the poor.

1740 – Moiety of fines collected under act to prevent abuses in the repacking of beef and pork to be applied to support of the minister and the poor in New York city.

Providing for support and burials of the poor in county at the expense of the county.” (Senate 11- 30)

Fast forward to 1771:

1771 – “The Society of the Hospital in the City of New York in America.”

“This Society was incorporated June 13, 1771 by a charter granted by King George the Third. This was the result of a subscription set on foot for the purpose of erecting a public hospital in the City of New York, and the King in view of the beneficial tendency of such an institution ‘calculated for relieving the diseases of the indigent.’ granted the charter.” (Senate 37)

1772 – The Society of the Hospital of the City of New York in America to receive an annual appropriation of 800 (pounds) to be paid from excise duties laid on strong liquors retailed in New York city. Hospital to receive and treat all sick poor persons who are residents of any county within the colony, without compensation. (Senate 37)

1773 – An Act for the Settlement and Relief of the Poor (Passed March 8, 1773). (Senate 39)”

THE STATE OF NEW YORK 1776 TO 1900

“The first Legislature of the State of New York met at Kingston on September 10, 1777, and the first statute was enacted February 6, 1778. Of the great majority of the laws which have been enacted in this State affecting the administration of charity and the care of the poor, it is possible to give a brief abstract only, referring the student of these questions to the laws themselves for fuller information should such be desired. To facilitate reference, however, especially of those to whom the laws of the State may not be accessible, a few of the more important statutes, such as the general poor laws, are printed in full.

1778 – Appointing Commissioners in Tryon, Saratoga, Albany and Charlotte counties to collect and distribute charitable donations among distressed inhabitants on frontiers of eastern and western districts of State who, during late campaign, were obliged to abandon their homes by devastation of the enemy.

Appointing a Commissioner to superintend the poor removed from New York into Dutchess county, and appropriating 600 (pounds) from State treasury to each of the Commissioners for superintending poor removed into Dutchess, Westchester and Ulster counties.

Providing for the election of overseers of the poor at the annual town meetings in August. Directing Justices of the Peace to furnish the necessaries of life to the families of soldiers in Continental service at moderate prices balance to be paid by State.

Appropriations to commissioners over poor removed from New York city-in Dutchess county 1200 (pounds), and in Ulster county 600 (pounds).” (Senate 49-50)”

Fast Forward to 1784:

1784 – An Act for the Settlement and Relief of the Poor. Chapter 35 Laws of 1784. (Senate 52)

1788 – Overseers of poor to bind out poor children as apprentices and servants; proceedings where persons refuse to be bound; emigration of poor regulated-contracts of service. (Senate 70 & 71)

An Act for the Better Settlement and Relief of the Poor. Chapter 62 of the Laws of 1788. (Senate 78)

An Act for Dividing the Counties of This State Into Towns. Chapter 64 of the Laws of 1788.

“All counties divided into towns. Poor in town of Goshen, Warwick and Minisink, Orange county, and in Cortlandt, Yorktown, Stephentown, Greenburgh and Mt. Pleasant, Westchester county. In every town in the State two overseers of the poor to be elected. Overseers of poor in Albany and Hudson. Oaths of office of overseers. One-half of penalty for refusal of certain town officers elected to qualify to go to poor fund. Powers of town meetings.” (Senate 95) (57)

1824 – An Act to Incorporate The Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents in the City of New York. Chapter 126 Laws of 1824. (Senate 236)

An Act To Provide For The Establishment Of County Poorhouses. Chapter 331, Laws of 1824, Passed 27th November 1824.”

The American Revolutionary War began in July 1776 and ended in October 1781. There was a flurry of activity of charity for the poor during and after the American Revolution. Once America became the United States, with its own sovereign government, New York became a state on July 26, 1788.

After the Civil War and by 1870, there were hundreds of charities partially funded with appropriations from the state. I have included a synopsis from Documents of The Senate of the State of New York, from 1865 to 1900, of anything having to do with Willard, state institutions, the pauper insane and the poor in general. There were hundreds of entries that I could not possibly include. (L.S.Stuhler)

New York State Timeline

1865 – Authorizing establishment of Willard State Asylum for the insane paupers. $75,000 appropriation therefor. (Senate 1865, Chapter 342, page 556)

1867 – Annual Supply Bill. $14,300 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate 1867, Chapter 481, page 582)

1870 – Appropriating $49,250 to pay present indebtedness of the Willard Asylum for the Insane. (Senate 1870, Chapter 380, page 636)

$118,000 for Willard Asylum, for extension or completion of wing, building for idiots, dock, fuel and salaries; $25,000 for furniture and maintenance of Willard Asylum. (Senate 1870, Chapter 492, page 641)

Making appropriations for certain public and charitable institutions: For orphan asylums, homes for the friendless and other charitable institutions of like character for their maintenance, $150,000 to be divided among the counties for the several state charities. (Senate 1870, Chapter 704, page 642).

1871 – In relation to the chronic pauper insane. Act authorizing Board of State Commissioners of Public Charities to hear and determine applications made to them by county superintendents of poor of the several counties of this State, and said board may file determination relieving counties from sending pauper insane to Willard Asylum. Said board may revoke such determination and must file same in office of county clerk making such application and notice thereof must be given to poor superintendents. Commissioners may direct removal of chronic pauper insane to Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate 1871, Chapter 713, page 658)

Supply Bill. $170,500 for Willard Asylum. (Senate 1871, Chapter 715, page 658) Appropriation Act. $28,000 for Willard Asylum. (Senate 1871, Chapter 715, page 659)

Amending section 11 of chapter 474, Laws of 1870, establishing a Homeopathic Asylum for the Insane at Middletown, NY. (Senate 1871, Chapter 237, page 652).

1872 – Appropriation Act. $9,000 for salaries for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate 1872, Chapter 541, page 681)

Section 9 of chapter 342 Laws of 1865 relating to price for board at Willard Asylum amended. (Senate 1872, Chapter 541, page 681)

Supply Bill. $131,000 for Willard Asylum for the Insane. (Senate 1872, Chapter 733, page 683)

Act to establish and maintain an institution for the relief of indigent and disabled soldiers and sailors of New York State. “The New York Soldiers’ Home” incorporated. (Senate 1872, Chapter 873, Laws of 1872, page 686)

1873 – Authorizing the trustees of Willard Asylum for the Insane to appoint a fourth assistant physician. (Senate, Chapter 443, page 694)

Act further defining the powers and duties of the Board of State Commissioners of Public Charities and to change the name of the Board to “The State Board of Charities.” Chapter 571, Laws of 1873. (Senate 695)

Appropriation Act. $10,500 for Willard Asylum for the Insane (Senate, Chapter 643, page 701) Supply Bill. $60,000 for Willard Asylum for the Insane (Senate, Chapter 700, page 702) Legalizing the adoption of minor children by adult persons. (Senate, Chapter 830, page 703)

Concurrent resolution directing the Board of State Commissioners of Public Charities to examine into the causes of the increase of crime, pauperism and insanity and report statistics to the next Legislature, passed May 29, 1873. (Senate 704)

1874 – Supply Bill. $140,000 for Willard Asylum for the Insane. (Senate, Chapter 323, page 706)

Appropriation Act. $250 for support of Susan Green, an insane Indian, at Willard Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 398, page 708)

Act to revise and consolidate the State Statutes, relating to the care and custody of the Insane, the management of the asylums for their treatment and keeping, and the duties of the State Commissioner in Lunacy. (Senate, Chapter 446, page 709)

Amending act providing for the support and care of State paupers, chapter 661, Laws of 1873. State Board of Charities authorized to contract with authorities of not more than 15 counties or cities in State for the reception of State paupers in poor houses of such counties or cities, and to make rules and regulations for their care and discipline. Said board may transfer paupers from one almshouse to another as it shall deem advisable. Passed June 7, 1873. (Senate 709)

1875 – Annual Appropriations Act. $11,000 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 373, page 721)

Annual Supply Bill. $56,000 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate 1875, Chapter 634, page 727)

Act providing for a better system of records of the inmates of poorhouses and almshouses. Copies to be sent to State Board of Charities. (Senate, Chapter 140, page 713)

An Act to Provide for the Better Care of Pauper and Destitute Children. Chapter 173, Laws of 1875. Section 1. On and after January first, eighteen hundred and seventy-six, it shall not be lawful for    any justice of the peace, police justice or other magistrate to commit any child, over three and    under sixteen years of age, as vagrant, truant or disorderly, to any county poor-house of this State, or for any county superintendent or overseer of the poor, or other officer, to send any such child as a pauper to any such poor-house for support and care, unless such child be an unteachable idiot, an epileptic or paralytic, or be otherwise defective, diseased or deformed, so as to render it unfit for family care; but such justice of the peace, police justice or other magistrate, and also such county superintendent or overseer of the poor, or other officer, shall commit or send such child or children not above exempted to some orphan asylum or other charitable or reformatory institution, as now provided for by law. (Senate 714)

An Act to Authorize the Establishment of a Female Department to the Western House of Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents. Seventy-five thousand dollars appropriated. Chapter 228, Laws of 1875. (Senate 716)

An Act to Authorize the Various Associations and Societies Incorporated Under the Laws of the State of New York, For the Purposes of Taking Care Of and Protecting Destitute Infant Minor Children, To Bind Out by Indenture Destitute Children Who Are In Their Care and Keeping, Chapter 522, Laws of 1875. (Senate 724)

1876 – Annual Appropriations Act. $10,500 for Willard Insane Asylum (Senate, Chapter 192, page 730)

Supply Bill. $100,500 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 193, page 730)

Act to prevent and punish wrongs to children. Occupation of children in theatrical and certain other employments made a misdemeanor. (Senate, Chapter 122, page 728)

An Act providing for the Removal from office by Governor of any County Superintendent of the Poor charged with misconduct. Offender to be given a copy of charge against him and opportunity to defend himself. The Governor to direct testimony or examination. Chapter 133, Laws of 1876. (Senate 729)

1877 – Annual Appropriations Act. $12,000 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 123, page 738)

Supply Bill. $100,378 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 276, page 740)

Act for the protection of children and to prevent and punish certain wrongs to children. Minors under 14 years not to be allowed in drinking or concert saloons, etc. Begging by children prohibited. (Senate, Chapter 428, page 742)

Concurrent Resolution. Relating to the Soldiers Home for the State of New York. Official returns of 35 of the 60 counties of State show that there are 641 veteran soldiers and sailors in the county poor-houses of the State. A farm of 240 acres in vicinity of Bath, Steuben county having been purchased for home for disabled soldiers and sailors and private subscription raised for erecting buildings thereon…$100,000. (Senate 744)

1878 – Appropriations Act. $12,350 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 29, page 744) Supply Bill. $53,000 for Willard Insane Asylum (all laws authorizing appointment of Building Superintendent and fixing salary of Building Superintendent of Willard Asylum, repealed) (Senate, Chapter 252, page 748)

Act providing for the support, treatment and care of pauper, destitute and delinquent children under sixteen years of age. Not to be committed to poor houses but to be placed in families or orphan asylums. Powers of State Board of Charities in connection therewith defined. Chapter 404 Laws of 1878. (Senate 1878, page 750)

1879 – Appropriations Act. $12,100 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 148, page 755) Supply Bill. $100,000 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 272, page 758)”

In 1880, New York State started cracking down on insane alien paupers. Expenses for Willard were growing along with the pauper insane population which, by law, required the state to provide additional institutions to be built in order to provide for their care and support. By 1883, there were at least 27 state institutions, including Willard, supported by tax payer funds. New charitable institutions sprang up all over New York State for the care of the insane, idiots and feeble-minded, deaf and dumb, blind, sick and crippled soldiers, orphans, indigent children, juvenile delinquents, abandoned women, etc. This number did not include the poor houses or the prisons in all the various counties that also required tax payer funds. (L.S.Stuhler)

1880 – Appropriations Act. $12,100 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 141, page 763)

CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, Chapter 178.

Section 1590. “Partition by guardian of infant, committee of lunatic, etc.” Section 1591. “Contents of petition.”

Section 1592. “Court may authorize partition of infants and lunatics’ interest in lands.” Section 1593. “Effect of releases by such guardian or committee.”

Section 1638. “An infant or incompetent person cannot bring an action to compel determination of a claim to real property.”

Section 1647. “An action against a widow to determine her dower interest cannot be brought against an infant or incompetent.”

Section 1743. “An action may be brought to have a marriage contract declared void when one of the parties was an idiot or lunatic, or when one or both had not attained the age of legal consent.” Section 1744. “An action to annul marriage contract may he maintained by infant or by its parent or guardian.”

Section 1746. “Such action may be commenced by any relative of an idiot.” Section 1747. “When such action to be commenced where party was a lunatic.”

Section 1749. “A child of a marriage annulled on ground of idiocy or lunacy of one of its parents is a legitimate child of the other parent of sound mind.”

Section 1755. “How next friend of infant or lunatic allowed to sue.”

Section 1926. “Actions by overseers and superintendents of the poor to recover penalties and damages and enforce liabilities or duties under contract made with them.”

Section 1927. “Actions against overseers and superintendents of the poor.”

Sections 2320 to 2344. “Proceedings for appointment of a committee of a lunatic, idiot or habitual drunkard.”

Section 2324. “Duties of overseers and superintendents of the poor to apply for appointment of such committee when incompetent has property which may be endangered and no relative has applied.”

Sections 2345 to 2364. “Proceedings for disposition of real estate of an infant, lunatic, idiot or habitual drunkard.”

Section 2382. “Effect of lunacy in arbitration proceedings.”

Sections 2530 and 2531. “Proceedings for appointment of special guardians of infants and incompetents in Surrogates Courts.”(Senate, Chapter 178, pps. 763-766)

Supply Bill. $3,000 for the removal of infirm alien paupers to the countries whence they came and authorizing State Board of Charities to remove alien paupers. “Chapter 272, Laws 1879, amended as follows: Hereafter no pauper who has not resided within the State for at least one year next prior to application for his or her admission into any State asylum for the idiotic, blind, insane or deaf and dumb, shall be admitted as an inmate therein.” (Senate 772)

1881 – Appropriations Act. $12,100 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 185, page 775)

“In relation to the officers and medical staff of Willard Insane Asylum, and to provide for the appointment of a committee for the discharge of patients in said asylum.” (Senate, Chapter 190, p 776)

An Act To Confer Upon The State Charities Aid Association the Power to Visit, Inspect and Examine any of the State Charitable Institutions, County Poor-Houses and Town Poor-Houses and City Alms-Houses Within the State. Chapter 323, Laws of 1881. (Senate, Chapter 323, page 778)

“Act for the inspection of alien emigrants and their effects by the commissioners of emigration to ascertain who among them are paupers or otherwise liable to become public charges, and to retransport such emigrants.” (Senate, Chapter 427, page 780)

CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, Chapter 442.

Section 239. “A grand juror may be challenged if a minor or insane.” Section 375. “A trial juror may be challenged if a minor or insane.”

Sections 658 to 662. “Inquiry into insanity of the defendant before trial or after conviction. If found insane, defendant to be sent to State lunatic asylum at expense of county from which he was sent, but the county may recover such expenses from his estate or from a relative, town, city or county, bound to provide for him.” (Senate, Chapter 442, page 781)

Supply Bill. $10,000 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 475, page 783)

“Amending chapter 460, Laws of 1879, to amend chapter 123, Laws 1854, promoting medical science. Governors and managers of hospitals may deliver bodies of deceased persons to professors of medical colleges for dissection in certain cases, if bodies are unclaimed, etc.” (Senate, Chapter 550, page 784)

“Amending chapter 482, Laws 1875, conferring on board of supervisors further powers of local legislation and administration. Supervisors authorized to purchase real estate for establishments for care of paupers, idiots, paupers incurably insane and other indigent persons, for whose support the county is responsible, and issue bonds for payment therefore.” (Senate, Chapter 573 page 784)

THE PENAL CODE, Chapter 676

Section 20. “An act done by an idiot, imbecile, lunatic or insane, is not a crime. A person cannot be tried or punished for a crime while in a state of idiocy, imbecility, insanity or lunacy, so as to be incapable of understanding the proceeding or making his defense.” (785)

Section 21. “But a person is not excused from criminal liability on such ground except upon proof that at time of committing the act, he did not know the nature and quality of the act or that he was doing wrong.” (785)

Section 377. “Unlawful confinement or unkind treatment or neglect of duty towards any idiot, lunatic or person under confinement a misdemeanor.” (788)

Section 445. “Maintaining private insane asylums without a license a misdemeanor.” (788)

1882 – Annual Appropriations Act. $11,850 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 270, page 792)

“Supply bill. The officers of each State hospital, asylum, charitable or reformatory institution and the State Commissioner in Lunacy, the State Board of Charities and the State Board of Health shall render to the Comptroller, annually, a detailed, itemized account of all their several receipts and expenditures.” (794)

Annual Appropriations Act. $13,800 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 362, page 794)

Section 2042. “Commissioners of emigration to inspect all foreign immigrants, to ascertain and arrest habitual criminals, paupers, incompetents or imbeciles or destitute deaf, dumb, blind or infirm or orphans or persons having infectious or contagious diseases.” (Senate, Chapter 410, page 807) Section 2064. “All lunatic, idiotic, deaf, dumb, blind, maimed, infirm or sick indigent persons over sixty years, who are passengers on vessels arriving at port of New York, shall be cared for at expense of captains, owners or agents of the vessels under penalty of $500 until delivered to commissioners of emigration.” (Senate, Chapter 410, page 807, 808)

1883 – “Amending chapter 446, Laws of 1874, revising and consolidating the statutes of the State relating to the care and custody of the insane, the management of the asylums for their treatment and safekeeping and the duties of the State Commissioner in Lunacy.” (Senate, Chapter 193, page 810)

Annual Appropriations Act. $11,850 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 243, page 810)

ARTICLE I. “Persons exempt from military duty. Section 6. Idiots, lunatics, paupers, vagabonds, habitual drunkards and persons convicted of infamous crimes.” (Senate, 813)

“Amending chapter 550, Laws of 1881, to amend chapter 460, Laws of 1879, which amends chapter 123, Laws of 1854, to promote medical science. It shall be lawful for officers of public hospitals and almshouses to deliver dead bodies to medical colleges for dissection under certain conditions herein named. Relatives however may claim bodies.” (Senate, Chapter 443, page 814)

Supply Bill. $6,000 for Willard Insane Asylum. $2,000 for the removal of infirm alien paupers. (Senate, Chapter 491, page 814)

1884 – Authorizing the trustees of Willard Insane Asylum to purchase a farm of 134 acres at a price not exceeding $75 per acre. (Senate 1884, Chapter 27, page 816)

Annual Appropriations Act. $13,500 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 550, page 827) Supply Bill. $3,000 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 550, page 827)

$2,000 for the removal of infirm alien paupers. (Senate, Chapter 551, page 827)

“Concurrent resolution passed May 14, 1884, relating to the business and financial management of all the State charitable institutions. Attorney-General, Comptroller and President of State Board of Charities to devise plan for reorganization of business and financial management of all State charitable institutions and for a central purchasing agency and to report to next legislature.” (Senate, Chapter 551, page 828)

1885 – “Act making an appropriation of $11,746 for certain extraordinary repairs and improvements at Willard Asylum for the Insane.” (Senate, Chapter 99, page 830)

“Act in relation to the discharge of patients from the Willard Insane Asylum on their recovery.” (Senate, Chapter 178, page 832)

Annual Appropriations Act. $13,500 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 240, page 833) Section 210. “The board of estimate and apportionment is authorized to appropriate from time to time all moneys derived from fines and penalties, and all license fees provided for in this act, to such benevolent, charitable or insane institutions as may seem deserving by said board.” (Senate, Chapter 249, page 833)

Supply Bill. “The proper officers of each State hospital, asylum, charitable or reformatory institution, the State Commissioner in Lunacy, the State Board of Charities and the State Board of Health must render to the comptroller quarterly a detailed and itemized account of all receipts of expenditures with sub vouchers.” (Senate, Chapter 525, page 838)

1886 – “Amending chapter 446, title 5, Laws 1874, to revise and consolidate the statutes of the State, relating to the care and custody of the insane, the management of the asylums and the duties of State Commissioner in Lunacy.” (Senate, Chapter 27, page 839)

Appropriation of $35,200 for completion of two buildings on grounds of Binghamton Asylum for Chronic Insane, provided to be erected by chapter 525, Laws 1885. (Senate 841)

Authorizing the trustees of Binghamton Asylum for the Chronic Insane to appoint additional assistant physician. (Senate, Chapter 215, page 841)

Authorizing the appointment of commissioners to locate an asylum for the insane in Northern New York. (Senate, Chapter 238, page 841)

Providing additional accommodations for the insane at the Hudson River State Hospital and to provide for the construction thereof. (Senate, Chapter 318, page 842)

Supply Bill. $77,000 for Willard Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 330, page 843)

Annual Appropriations Act. $13,500 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 413, page 845)

Name of the Western House of Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents or the House of Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents in Western New York changed to “The State Industrial School,” and relating to discipline and instruction therein and commitments thereto and making an appropriation therefor of $10,000. (Senate, Chapter 539, page 846)

Act for the better preservation of the health of children in institutions. (Senate, Chapter 633, page 848)

1887 – Annual Appropriations Act. $14,700 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 195, page 852)

1888 – Annual Appropriations Act. $14,700 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 269, page 863)

Annual Supply Bill. $43,375 for the Willard Insane Asylum. $5,000 for the removal of in firm alien paupers. (Senate, Chapter 270, page 863)

1889 – “An act to establish and organize the “State Commission in Lunacy,” and to define its duties.

$15,000 appropriated to carry out the provisions of this act.” (Senate, Chapter 283, page 873)

“Empowering the trustees of Willard Insane Asylum to grant a right of way to the Geneva and Van Ettenville Railroad Company through the lands of the State appurtenant to said asylum and under the charge and management of said trustees.” (Senate, Chapter 439, page 876,877)

Annual Appropriations Act. $14,700 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 569, page 877)

Annual Supply Bill. $30,000 for the Willard Insane Asylum. $5,000 for the removal of in firm alien paupers. (Senate, Chapter 570, page 877)

1890 – Annual Appropriations Act. $14,700 for Willard Insane Asylum. (Senate, Chapter 84, page 880)

Changing the name of several State asylums for the insane. “The State Lunatic Asylum” to “The Utica State Hospital;” “The Willard Asylum for the Insane” to “The Willard State Hospital;” “The Hudson River State Hospital for the Insane” to “The Hudson River State Hospital;” “The Buffalo State Asylum for the Insane” to “The Buffalo State Hospital;” “The State Homoeopathic Asylum for the Insane at Middletown” to “The Middletown State Homoeopathic Hospital;” “The

Binghamton Asylum for the Insane” to “The Binghamton State Hospital;” and “The St. Lawrence Asylum for the Insane” to “The St. Lawrence State Hospital”

(Senate 1890, Chapter 132, page 882)

An Act to Provide for the Employment of a Woman Physician in the State Asylums and Hospitals. Chapter 243, Laws of 1890. “The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the superintendent or chief medical officer of each state asylum or hospital for the care and treatment of the insane, except the State Asylum for Insane Criminals, to appoint a competent resident woman physician, who is a graduate of some legally incorporated medical college to perform such medical duties in and about the care and treatment of the women insane, as such superintendent or chief medical officer shall direct.

Section 2. Each resident woman physician, so appointed, shall be in addition to the number of resident physicians and officers of the said state asylums or hospitals now employed, and shall receive as compensation an annual sum of twelve hundred dollars.

Section 3. This act shall take effect the first day of July, eighteen hundred and ninety.” (Senate, Chapter 243, page 884)

Amending, revising and consolidating certain acts relating to the State Commission in Lunacy and the care and custody of the insane and the management of asylums for their treatment and safe- keeping, as provided in chapter 446, Laws of 1874, and chapter 283, Laws of 1889, and repealing sections 9, 10 and 11 of chapter 342, Laws of 1865, and chapter 713, Laws of 1871. (Senate,

Chapter 273, page 884)

Annual Supply Bill. $25,000 for the Willard Insane Asylum. $5,000 for the removal of infirm alien paupers. (Senate, Chapter 295, page 885)

1891 – Act to change the name of The Asylum for Idiots to the “Syracuse State Institution for Feeble-Minded Children.” (Senate, Chapter 51, page 889)

Making an appropriation of $454,850 for the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of chapter 126, Laws of 1890, relating to the State care of insane. Said sum to be apportioned by the board for the establishment of State insane asylum districts and for other purposes, in such a manner as to provide accommodations in the following hospitals for not less than the number of patients named: At the Utica State Hospital, 150 patients. At the Hudson River State Hospital, 200 patients. At the Middletown State Homoeopathic Hospital, 200 patients. At the Buffalo State Hospital, 150 patients. At the Binghamton State Hospital, 127 patients. (Senate, Chapter 91, page 890)

Annual Appropriations Act. $16,900 for the Willard State Hospital. (Senate 892)

An Act to Prohibit, Except on Conviction for Felony, the Commitment of Children Under Twelve Years of Age to the State Industrial School at Rochester or the House of Refuge on Randall’s Island. Chapter 216, Laws of 1891. (Senate 893)

Annual Supply Bill. $5,000 for the removal of infirm alien paupers. $37,700 for Willard State Hospital. (Senate 894)

1892 – Annual Appropriations Act. $16,900 for the Willard State Hospital. (Senate 902)

Providing for the appointment of a committee to locate an institution for epileptics in New York State. The commissioners of the State Board of Charities are directed to select a suitable site for said institution; $1.500 appropriated for the expenses of the commission. (Senate, Chapter 503, page 905)

1893 – Appropriating $104,621 for the purchase by the State of certain lands heretofore purchased by Oneida county, for the purpose of being used as a county asylum for the insane in city of Rome. (Senate, Chapter 43, page 914)

Amending chapter 278, Laws of 1881, authorizing such girls and women as are vagrants or convicted of misdemeanors as a first offense, to be sent to the Shelter for Homeless Women in the city of Syracuse, and to change the name of such corporation to The Shelter for Unprotected Girls. (Senate, Chapter 53, page 915)

Establishing the “Matteawan State Hospital.” (Senate, Chapter 81, page 915)

Appropriating $50,000 for the purchase by the State of certain lands heretofore purchased by Erie county in town of Collins, for the purpose of being used for a county asylum for the insane. (Senate, Chapter 91, page 915)

Appropriating money for the care, medical treatment, clothing, support and transportation to State hospitals of the insane poor, under provisions of chapter 126, Laws 1890. (Senate, Chapter 214, page 917)

Act relative to committees of the property of lunatics, idiots or habitual drunkards and to provide for the presentation, proof and payment of claims against the estates of such persons, and accountings of such committees. (Senate, Chapter 697, page 929)

Annual Supply Bill. $5,000 for the removal of infirm alien paupers. $31, 350 for Willard State Hospital. (Senate 930)

1894 – Amending section 3 of chapter 438, Laws of 1884, to revise and consolidate the statutes of the State relating to the custody and care of indigent pauper children by orphan asylums and other charitable institutions. Institutions to keep record of children. (Senate, Chapter 54, page 932) Annual Supply Bill. $5,000 for the removal of infirm alien paupers. $20,434 for Willard State Hospital. (Senate 937)

Establishing the “Craig Colony” for epileptics and making an appropriation of $140,000 therefor, to be placed under the supervision of the State Board of Charities. (Senate, Chapter 363, page 938)

Amending chapter 348 of Laws of 1893, establishing an institution for the care and custody of unteachable idiots known as the “Rome State Custodial Asylum.” (Senate, Chapter 382, page 938)

Appropriating money for the support of the insane under the provisions of chapters 126, Laws of 1890, and 214, Laws of 1893. A State tax of thirty-three one-hundredths of a mill to be imposed, beginning on October 1, 1894, on each dollar of real and personal property of the State, which is in aggregate a sum of 1,385,000, to pay the expenses of State hospitals, the Oneida State Custodial Asylum and the State Commission in Lunacy. (Senate, Chapter 383, page 938)

Providing for the compulsory education of children. (Senate, Chapter 671, page 944)

Establishing the “Collins Farm State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane.” (Senate, Chapter 707, page 945)

1895 – To continue the “Thomas Asylum for Orphan and Destitute Indian Children” on the Cattaraugus reservation, and to provide for its management and maintenance. (Senate, Chapter 38, page 948)

Providing for the discharge of insane patients from State Hospitals, and to amend section 24, chapter 446, Laws 1874. (Senate, Chapter 172, page 948)

Act to protect human life by the erection of fire escapes on the outside of hospital buildings over two stories high and not fireproof. (Senate, Chapter 381, page 950)

Legitimatizing children whose parents marry after the birth of such children. (Senate, Chapter 531, page 953)

Act to protect public institutions of the State and the inmates of said buildings against destruction by fire. Stand pipes, hose, fire extinguishers and fire escapes to be provided. Use of lights and inflammable substances regulated. (Senate, Chapter 535, page 953)

A State tax of one mill on each dollar of real and personal property of the State shall be imposed for the fiscal year beginning on October 1, 1895, for the State Commission in Lunacy, for the maintenance of State hospitals, including salaries of those employed,… for the purchase of supplies and general maintenance of patients, etc. (Senate, Chapter 693, page 959)

1896 – Act to revise and consolidate the laws relating to the State Board of Charities; powers and duties defined. (Senate, Chapter 771, page 962)

Supply Bill. $1,000 for Willard State Hospital. (Senate 966)

Converting the New York City Insane Asylum into a State Hospital to be known as the “Manhattan State Hospital.” (Senate, Chapter 2, page 968)

An Act in Relation to the Poor, Constituting Chapter 27 of the General Laws (The Poor Law), Chapter 225, Laws of 1896. (Senate, page 973)

Authorizing the sale of ale and beer upon the premises of the New York State Soldiers and Sailors’ Home of Bath, N.Y., and providing for the expenditure of the net proceeds therefrom. (Senate, Chapter 960, page 1063)

An Act to Provide for the Care of Aged, Decrepit and Mentally Enfeebled Persons who are Not Insane, Chapter 914, Laws of 1896. (Senate, page 1065)

Supplemental Supply Bill for Willard State Hospital, $1,000 for the clergymen. (Senate, page 1067)

1897 – Appropriating $4,500,000, a sum raised by State tax, for the support of the insane under the provisions of chapter 545, of Laws of 1896. (Senate, Chapter 460, page 1092)

1898 – The Military Code, constituting chapter 16 of the general laws: Section 1. Officers and assistants of hospitals, idiots, lunatics, paupers, vagabonds, habitual drunkards and persons convicted of infamous crimes to be exempt from military duty. (Senate, Chapter 212, page 1101)

Supplemental Supply Bill for Willard State Hospital, $1,000 for the clergymen. (Senate, page 1107)

1899 – Amending the State charities law relating to licensing and regulation of dispensaries by the Board of Charities, Chapter 368, Laws of 1899. (Senate, page 1116)

Incorporating the “Salvation Army in the United States,” to establish and maintain, subject to the written approval of the State Board of Charities, when established in New York State, hospitals for the sick and convalescent, and homes for children, the aged and fallen women. (Senate, Chapter 468, page 1120)

Supply Bill. $1,000 to Willard State Hospital. (Senate, Page 1121)

Amending chapter 182, Laws 1898, relative to government of cities of the second class. Section 227. Health physician to attend indigent sick who are certified as such and a proper charge upon the city by the poor officers. (Senate, Chapter 581, page 1123)

1900 – Making an appropriation of $1,000,000 for buildings, repairs and improvements at the state hospitals for the insane. (Senate, Chapter 364, Page 1130)

An Act to Establish the New York State Hospital for the Care of Crippled and Deformed Children, Chapter 369, Laws of 1900. (Senate, page 1130)

Supply Bill. $1,000 for the Willard State Hospital. (Senate, page 1143)” (57)

As late as 1912, poor children in orphan asylums were still being bound out as apprentices, clerks and servants, as long as the child had been “absolutely surrendered.” Boys were bound until age twenty-one and girls were bound until age eighteen. (L.S.Stuhler)

“Every such child shall, when practicable, be bound out or apprenticed to persons of the same religious faith as the parents of such child. The indenture shall in such case be signed:
1. In the corporate name of such institution by the officer or officers thereof authorized by the directors to sign the corporate name to such instrument, and shall be sealed with the corporate seal;
2. By the master or employer.
Such indenture may also be signed by the child if over twelve years of age.” (58)

SOURCE: 57. Reprinted from Documents of The Senate of the State of New York, One Hundred and Twenty Seventh Session, 1904, Vol. XIV. No. 22, Part 4, Annual Report of the State Board of Charities for the Year 1903, In Three Volumes with Statistical Appendix to Volume One bound separately. Volume Three Charity Legislation in New York 1609 to 1900. Transmitted to the Legislature February 1, 1904. <http://books.google.com/>

SOURCE: 58. Reprinted from Documents of The Assembly of the State of New York, One Hundred and Thirty Sixth Session, 1913, Volume XXVII., No. 48, Part 1, Commissioner of Labor 1912, page 309. <http://books.google.com/

Photographs from A Compendium of Insanity 1898

Photographs from A Compendium of Insanity by John B. Chapin, M.D., 1898

The following photographs taken in 1898 are of actual patients of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane. They were included in the book, A Compendium of Insanity by John B. Chapin, M.D., as an aid to help physicians and alienists (psychiatrists) identify “insane” patients simply by looking at them.

PLATE I.

Plate I - Idiots 1898

Plate I – Imbeciles & Idiots 1898

1. Imbecile – Medium Grade
2. Imbecile – High Grade
3. Idiot – Low Grade
4. Idiot – Excitable
Page 30

 

PLATE II

Plate II - Melancholia 1898

Plate II – Melancholia 1898

1. Simple Melancholia
2. Melancholia with Agitation
Page 100

 

PLATE III.

Plate III - Melancholia & Mania 1898

Plate III – Melancholia & Mania 1898

1. Melancholia with Stupor Chronic Delusional Insanity
2. Acute Mania Chronic Mania
Page 116

 

PLATE IV.

Plate IV - Insanity & Mania 1898

Plate IV – Insanity & Mania 1898

1. Chronic Delusional Insanity
2. Chronic Mania
Page 122

 

PLATE V.

Plate V - Insane Criminals 1898

Plate V – Insane Criminals 1898

1. Chronic Mania: Homicide
2. Chronic Mania with Fixed Delusions: Homicide
3. Habitual Criminal and Convict: Chronic Mania
4. Habitual Criminal and Convict: Chronic Mania
Page 130

 

PLATE VI.

Plate VI - Paranoia & Composite Portrait 1898

Plate VI – Paranoia & Composite Portrait 1898

1. Paranoia
2. Composite Portrait of Eight Cases of Paresis (By Dr. Noyes)
Page 130

 

(Paresis – slight or incomplete paralysis. General Paresis chronic meningoencephalitis from a syphilitic infection that is causing gradual loss of cortical function, resulting in progressive dementia and generalized paralysis; this may occur 10 to 20 years after an initial infection of syphilis in untreated individuals. Called also Bayle’s disease and dementia paralytica). SOURCE: Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. (https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/paresis).

SOURCE: 20. Reprinted from Chapin, John B., A Compendium of Insanity, (John B. Chapin, M.D., L.L.D., Physician in Chief, Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane; Late Physician Superintendent of Willard State Hospital, New York; Honorary Member of The Medico-Psychological Society of Great Britain and The Society of Mental Medicine Belgium, etc.), Illustrated, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 925 Walnut Street, 1898, Pages 30, 100, 116, 122, 130. <http://books.google.com/>

Original PDF file created by Linda S. Stuhler 2011.

https://inmatesofwillard.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/photographs-compendium-of-insanity1.pdf

ARRESTED John Allen, Director, Office of Mental Health, Office of Consumer Affairs

Hello Friends! My last blog post on October 12, 2016, was entitled, “Good Bye!”  There are a few reasons why I have not written any posts. First of all, I had written over 200 factual articles which required countless hours of research. At this time in my life, I am not willing, nor am I able, to devote that much time sitting in front of my computer. Secondly, the nature of this subject matter is extremely depressing and not good for my mental health. Thirdly, I was tired of banging my head against wall trying to convince the New York State Office of Mental Health to release the names of former patients in an online format, etc. If you have read past posts, I don’t need to fill you in.

A friend of mine contacted me with some very disturbing news about John Allen, Director, Office of Mental Health, Office of Consumer Affairs. Here is his mugshot from the Albany County Jail.

John Allen-Albany County Jail

John Allen-Albany County Jail

This is the man who was in charge of Consumer Affairs. This is the man that everyone had to go through to get answers. This is the man who had total control over what we could and could not learn about our family members; former patients of New York State Hospitals/Asylums, who died YEARS AGO and were buried in anonymous, unmarked graves in the state owned cemeteries of these 26 state run institutions. In my judgement, any deal that was made between the New York State Legislature and John Allen should be null and void. Hopefully, we can start over and write the bill that I wanted written in the first place but I’m not holding my breath. Two years after my last blog post I have reached 507,475 hits without any new blog posts. Read the comments! Clearly, there are people out there who are still searching for help, trying to locate any information on their long lost loved ones!

News10 Albany – By Anya Tucker
Updated: Sep 26, 2018 05:20 PM EDT
https://www.news10.com/news/local-news/former-friend-of-state-employee-accused-of-child-endangerment-in-role-playing-case-speaks-out/1477267891

Times Union Albany – By Paul Nelson
Updated 8:44 pm EDT, Thursday, September 20, 2018
https://www.timesunion.com/7dayarchive/article/Details-emerge-about-ex-state-supervisor-s-13245073.php

Spectrum News – Capital Region
http://spectrumlocalnews.com/nys/capital-region/crime-safety/2018/09/19/state-employee-child-endangerment-arrest

THE TRUTH ABOUT MARGARET SANGER, ABORTION & EUGENICS

“While there are cases where even the law recognizes an abortion as justifiable if recommended by a physician, I assert that the hundreds of thousands of abortions performed in America each year are a disgrace to civilization.”
Margaret Sanger – 1920.

Margaret Sanger and Her Sons.

Margaret Sanger and Her Sons.

In 1916, Margaret Sanger, a nurse and Progressive Activist, opened a clinic in Brooklyn, New York, to provide women with health education on Birth Control, prevention of venereal diseases, and the use of prophylactics. It is hard for us in the 21st Century to understand why information about contraception was illegal, but it was. The Comstock Law of 1873 “was a federal law that made it a crime to sell or distribute materials that could be used for contraception or abortion, to send such materials or information about such materials through the federal mail system, or to import such materials from abroad.” My particular beef with all the fanfare about what a great woman Margaret Sanger was is the fact that virtually all bloggers intentionally leave out the fact that she was a fervent supporter of the Eugenics Movement in the United States who advocated for the FORCED STERILIZATION of the mentally ill and developmentally disabled.

Was it a good thing to educate women and men about contraception? Yes. Was Margaret Sanger‘s intent to educate women based on the belief that she cared so deeply for them? No. Margaret Sanger was appalled and disgusted by the lower classes, the newly arrived immigrants, prostitutes, mentally ill, blind, crippled, developmentally disabled, and criminal types. Her intent was to rid these defective, delinquent, and dependent people from the American Melting Pot once and for all in order to produce a hearty, healthy, literate breed of educated Americans who would only bring children into this world that they could support and who didn’t drain the economy. She saw the devastation and mutilation to women’s bodies by self-inflicted and botched abortions and thought that abortion itself was barbaric; “that an educated society would never need to resort to such drastic measures.”

Was Margaret Sanger a great woman? You decide. As always, I present the facts and the historical documents FOR YOU TO READ FOR YOURSELF! To learn more about this issue and the history of Eugenics, click on the RED links below.

“The American Birth Control League, Margaret Sanger, President, The Birth Control Review, Volume VI, No. 8, Page 162, August 1922.

PRINCIPLES:
The complex problems now confronting America as the result of the practice of reckless procreation are fast threatening to grow beyond human control. Everywhere we see poverty and large families going hand in hand. Those least fit to carry on the race are increasing most rapidly. People who cannot support their own offspring are encouraged by Church and State to produce large families. Many of the children thus begotten are diseased or feeble-minded; many become criminals. The burden of supporting these unwanted types has to be borne by the healthy elements of the nation. Funds that should be used to raise the standard of our civilization are diverted to the maintenance of those who should never have been born. In addition to this grave evil we witness the appalling waste of women’s health and women’s lives by too frequent pregnancies. These unwanted pregnancies often provoke the crime of abortion, or alternatively multiply the number of child workers and lower the standard of living. To create a race of well-born children it is essential that the function of motherhood should be elevated to a position of dignity, and this is impossible as long as conception remains a matter of chance.

We hold that children should be:
1. Conceived in love;
2. Born of the mother’s conscious desire;
3. And only begotten under conditions which render possible the heritage of health.

Therefore we hold that every woman must possess the power and freedom to prevent conception except when these conditions can be satisfied. Every mother must realize her basic position in human society. She must be conscious of her responsibility to the race in bringing children into the world. Instead of being a blind and haphazard consequence of uncontrolled instinct, motherhood must be made the responsible and self-directed means of human expression and regeneration. These purposes, which are of fundamental importance to the whole of our nation and to the future of mankind, can only be attained if women first receive practical scientific education in the means of Birth Control. That, therefore, is the first object to which the efforts of this League will be directed.

AIMS: THE AMERICAN BIRTH CONTROL LEAGUE aims to enlighten and educate all sections of the American public in the various aspects of the dangers of uncontrolled procreation and the imperative necessity of a world program of Birth Control. The League aims to correlate the findings of scientists, statisticians, investigators and social agencies in all fields. To make this possible, it is necessary to organize various departments:

RESEARCH: To collect the findings of scientists, concerning the relation of reckless breeding to delinquency, defect and dependence.

INVESTIGATION: To derive from these scientifically ascertained facts and figures, conclusions which may aid all public health and social agencies in the study of problems of maternal and infant mortality, child-labor, mental and physical defects and delinquence in relation to the practice of reckless parentage.

HYGIENIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL instruction by the Medical profession to mothers and potential mothers in harmless and reliable methods of Birth Control in answer to their requests for such knowledge.

STERILIZATION of the insane and feeble-minded and the encouragement of this operation upon those afflicted with inherited or transmissible diseases, with the understanding that sterilization does not deprive the individual of his or her sex expression, but merely renders him or her incapable of producing children.

EDUCATIONAL: The program of education includes: The enlightenment of the public at large, mainly through the education of leaders of thought and opinion—teachers, ministers, editors and writers—to the moral and scientific soundness of the principles of Birth Control and the imperative necessity of its adoption as the basis of national and racial progress.

POLITICAL AND LEGISLATIVE: To enlist the support and co-operation of legal advisors, statesmen and legislators in effecting the removal of state and federal statutes which encourage dysgenic breeding, increase the sum total of disease, misery and poverty and prevent the establishment of a policy of national health nd strength.

ORGANIZATION: To send into the various States of the Union field workers to enlist the support and arouse the interest of the masses to the importance of Birth Control so that laws may be changed and the establishment of clinics made possible in every State.

INTERNATIONAL: This department aims to co-operate with similar organizations in other countries to study Birth Control in its relations to the world population problem, food supplies, national and racial conflicts, and to urge upon all international bodies organized to promote world peace, the consideration of these aspects of international amity.” SOURCE: Birth Control Review, Volumes 5-6, 1920, Page 162.

Captive Mother by Stephen Sinding.

Captive Mother by Stephen Sinding.

The Eugenic Value of Birth Control Propaganda by Margaret Sanger

“[The following brief statement of the dependence of any sound and effective program of Eugenics upon BIRTH CONTROL, in view of the Second International Congress of Eugenics, recently held in New York at the Museum of Natural History, assumes a peculiar timeliness.]

Seemingly every new approach to the great problem of the human race must manifest its vitality by running the gauntlet of prejudice, ridicule and misinterpretation. Eugenists may remember that not many years ago this program for race regeneration was subjected to the cruel ridicule of stupidity and ignorance. Today Eugenics is suggested by the most diverse minds as the most adequate and thorough avenue to the solution of racial, political and social problems. The most intransigeant and daring teachers and scientists have lent their support to this great biological interpretation of the human race. The war has emphasized its necessity.

The doctrine of BIRTH CONTROL is now passing through the stage of ridicule, prejudice and misunderstanding. A few years ago this new weapon of civilization and freedom was condemned as immoral, destructive, obscene. Gradually the criticisms are lessening-understanding is taking the place of misunderstanding. The eugenic and civilizational value of BIRTH CONTROL is becoming apparent to the enlightened and the intelligent.

In the limited space of the present paper, I have time only to touch upon some of the fundamental convictions that form the basis of our BIRTH CONTROL propaganda, and which, as I think you must agree, indicate that the campaign for BIRTH CONTROL is not merely of eugenic value, but is practically identical in ideal with the final aims of Eugenics.

First: We are convinced that racial regeneration, like individual regeneration, must come “from within.” That is, it must autonomous, self-directive, and not imposed from without. In other words, every potential parent, and especially every potential mother, must be brought to an acute realization of the primary and central responsibility of bringing children into this world.

Secondly: Not until the parents of the world are thus given control over their reproductive faculties will it ever be possible not alone to improve the quality of the generations of the future, but even to maintain civilization even at its present level. Only by self-control of this type, only by intelligent mastery of the procreative powers can the great mass of humanity be awakened to the great responsibility of parenthood.

Thirdly: We have come to the conclusion, based on widespread investigation and experience, that this education for parenthood must be based upon the needs and demands of the people themselves. An idealistic code of sexual ethics, imposed from above, a set of rules devised by high-minded theorists who fail to take into account the living conditions and desires of the submerged masses, can never be of the slightest value in effecting any changes in the mores of the people. Such systems have in the past revealed their woeful inability to prevent the sexual and racial chaos into which the world has today drifted.

The almost universal demand for practical education in BIRTH CONTROL is one of the most hopeful signs that the masses themselves today possess the diving spark of regeneration. It remain for the courageous and the enlightened to answer this demand, to kindle the spark, to direct a thorough education in Eugenics based upon this intense interest.

BIRTH CONTROL propaganda is thus the entering wedge for the Eugenic educator. In answering the needs of these thousands upon thousands of submerged mothers, it is possible to use this interest as the foundation for education in prophylaxis, sexual hygiene, and infant welfare. The potential mother is to be shown that maternity need not be slavery but the most effective avenue toward self-development and self-realization. Upon this basis only may we improve the quality of the race.

As an advocate of BIRTH CONTROL, I wish to take advantage of the present opportunity to point out that the unbalance between the birth rate of the “unfit” and the “fit,” admittedly the greatest present menace to civilization, can never be rectified by the inauguration of a cradle competition between these two classes. In this matter, the example of the inferior classes, the fertility of the feeble-minded, the mentally defective, the poverty-stricken classes, should not be held up for emulation to the mentally and physically fit though less fertile parents of the educated and well-to-do classes. On the contrary, the most urgent problem today is how to limit and discourage the overfertility of the mentally and physically defective.

BIRTH CONTROL is not advanced as a panacea by which past and present evils of dysgenic breeding can be magically eliminated. Possibly drastic and Spartan methods may be forced upon society if it continues complacently to encourage the chance and chaotic breeding that has resulted from our stupidly cruel sentimentalism.

But to prevent the repetition, to effect the salvation of the generations of the future-nay of the generations of today-our greatest need is first of all the ability to face the situation without flinching, and to cooperate in the formation of a code of sexual ethics based upon a thorough biological and psychological understanding of human nature; and then to answer the questions and the needs of the people with all the intelligence and honestly at our command. If we can summon the bravery to do this, we shall best be serving the true interests of Eugenics, because our work will then have a practical and pragmatic value.”
SOURCE: The Birth Control Review, Dedicated To Voluntary Motherhood, Margaret Sanger, Editor, Volume V., No.10, October 1921, Page 5 (43).

Definitions:
Propaganda – 1. Information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
2. The deliberate spreading of such information, rumors, etc.
3. The particular doctrines or principles propagated by an organization or movement. (1)

Race Suicide – The extinction of a race or people that tends to result when, through the unwillingness or forbearance of its members to have children, the birthrate falls below the death rate. (1)

Infanticide – The practice of killing newborn infants. (1)

Abortion – Also called voluntary abortion. the removal of an embryo or fetus from the uterus in order to end a pregnancy. (1)

Feticide – The act of destroying a fetus or causing an abortion. (1)

Eugenics – Selective breeding. The study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics). (1)

Birth Control – Voluntary limitation or control of the number of children conceived, especially by planned use of contraceptive techniques. (1)

Privation – 1. Loss or lack of the necessities of life, such as food and shelter.
2. Hardship resulting from this. 3.The state of being deprived. (1)

Progressive Movement – A movement for reform that occurred roughly between 1900 and 1920. Progressives typically held that irresponsible actions by the rich were corrupting both public and private life. They called for measures such as trust busting, the regulation of railroads, provisions for the people to vote on laws themselves through referendum, the election of the Senate by the people rather than by state legislatures, and a graduated income tax (one in which higher tax rates are applied to higher incomes). The Progressives were able to get much of their program passed into law. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson were associated with the movement. (1)

Prophylactic – A protective measure against disease. A device, usually a rubber sheath, used to prevent conception or venereal infection; condom. (1)

Venereal Disease – Any of various diseases, such as syphilis or gonorrhoea, transmitted by sexual intercourse. (1)

Neo-Malthusian – Designating, or pertaining to, a group of modern economists who hold to the Malthusianism doctrine that permanent betterment of the general standard of living is impossible without decrease of competition by limitation of the number of births. (2)

SOURCES: 1. Dictionary.com, 2. Fine Dictionary.com.

Additional Reading:

Woman And The New Race by Margaret Sanger, 1920.

The Birth Control Review, Volumes 1-3.

Birth Control Review, Volumes 5-6.

The Trend Of The Race by Samuel J. Holmes, 1921.

Definitions In Political Economy by Rev. Thomas Robert Malthus, 1827.

An Essay On The Principle Of Population by Rev. T.R. Malthus, 1888.

Studies In The Psychology Of Sex by Havelock Ellis, Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, Publishers, 1922.

Planned Parenthood 2013.

1907 Eugenics.

1912-1920 Eugenics in New York State.

1922 Eugenics New York State.

Good Bye!

I started this blog on July 10, 2011, thinking that maybe 5 people would actually read it and find the posts interesting. Five years later, I have created 12 pages, written 211 posts including countless PDF files, published 739 comments, and received 352,795 views. I self-published The Inmates of Willard 1870 to 1900: A Genealogy Resource, on December 17, 2011, with my own money, to further the cause of restoring dignity to the forgotten people who lived and died at New York State Hospitals (Insane Asylums), who had been buried on New York State property in anonymous, unmarked cemeteries and graves for over a century. New York State Senate Bill S840A-2015 became a law on August 18, 2016, but it did not include provisions for a searchable database available to the public as New York State lawmakers and the Office of Mental Health believed that if they did so, they would be sued. Their belief is that putting a name on a memorial or a headstone in public is different than publishing the names on a specific public website (as if no genealogy geek in the future will photograph the graves along with the names and publish them on the internet). This makes no sense to me. I believe that the New York State Office of Mental Health did not want to disclose the names of deceased patients because the burial ledgers may have been carelessly lost or destroyed. They would also have to explain why these cemeteries had never been marked in over 150 years, why they fell into such a state of neglect and disrepair in the first place, and why Kings Park State Hospital Cemetery is being used as a youth baseball field. The following states took a different approach and put searchable databases on the internet available to the public: Kansas; Minnesota; Nebraska; Ohio; TexasMaryland; Florida; Washington; and even Binghamton State Hospital of New York has a searchable list on line.

Monument For The Forgotten-Museum of disABILITY History, Buffalo, NY.

Monument For The Forgotten-Museum of disABILITY History, Buffalo, NY.

The reason why New York State Hospitals / Insane Asylums, Feeble-Minded and Epileptic Custodial Institutions are so important to the world is because there were 26 of them, possibly more. These institutions housed many newly arrived immigrants during the mid 19th and early 20th centuries from all over the world, especially Western Europe. I’m sure that there are plenty of people who would like to know the final resting place of their long, lost ancestor. It just doesn’t seem fair to me that this one stigmatized group of people are being denied the one and only thing that we really have to be remembered by; our name. Even though I initiated the original bill in August 2011 and it was introduced to the New York State Senate by Senator Joseph E. Robach in March 2012, I was never allowed to write it. This is the bill that I would have written:

“This bill is important and necessary in order to restore the dignity and personhood of the thousands of people who were incarcerated and died at former New York State Insane Asylums, (later renamed State Hospitals), Feeble-Minded and Epileptic Custodial Institutions. When the bodies of the inmates were not claimed by family members, they were buried in anonymous, unmarked graves, or, their bodies and brains were given to medical colleges for research. These forgotten souls deserve to have their names remembered and available to the public by means of a searchable internet database. Some of these deceased patients were undoubtedly United States Veterans who served during the Civil War, WWI, WWII, Korea, and Viet Nam, who suffered from PTSD and Shell Shock. Their graves deserve to be marked with the American Flag and honored like any other veteran’s grave.

The list of these former New York State Hospitals includes but is not limited to: Binghamton, Buffalo, Central Islip, CreedmoorDannemora, EdgewoodGowanda, Hudson River, Kings Park, Long Island, Manhattan, Marcy, Matteawan, Middletown, Mohansic, Pilgrim, Rochester, St. Lawrence, SyracuseUtica, and Willard

The Feeble-Minded (Intellectual Disabilities) and Epileptic Custodial Institutions of New York includes but is not limited to: Craig Colony for Epileptics, Letchworth Village for Epileptics & Intellectually Disabled, Newark State School for Intellectually Disabled Women, Rome State School for Intellectually Disabled Adults & Children, and Syracuse State School for Intellectually Disabled Children. There may be more.

There is no good reason why these long deceased souls need to be punished and stigmatized in death for an illness or intellectual disability that they lived with in life. The great majority of these former state hospitals closed in favor of smaller group home settings or changed their names to Psychiatric Centers in the early 1970s. This in turn led to many patients being thrown onto the streets to live in cardboard boxes, or thrown into jail with no psychiatric services, just as they did 150 years ago. I do not understand why anyone would need to have their name withheld from any cemetery list until 50 years had passed after their death. This requirement in the bill only serves to feed the stigma.”

Well, the bill that I wanted didn’t come to pass. I will keep this blog up and running for the purpose of historical research and I might post something now and then but there is nothing left for me to blog about, and I will not continue to bang my head against the wall trying to convince New York State lawmakers and the New York State Office of Mental Health to change their position. So, I will say, Good Bye! A few years ago, I donated $100.00 dollars to the Willard Cemetery Memorial Project and I cannot afford to give any more. If you are so inclined, please donate to the cause or start a cemetery organization of your own. The saddest part of this law is that by the time this organization raises enough money to mark 5,776 graves, I will be too old to care, and I am not aware of any other cemetery organizations for the other 25 New York State institutions. Thank you for all of your support over these past five years! May God Bless You and Your Loved Ones!!

Sincerely, Linda S. Stuhler

QUESTIONS & CONCERNS: CONTACT JOHN ALLEN, Director, Office of Mental Health, Office of Consumer Affairs, Central Office Staff, 44 Holland Avenue, Albany, New York 12229, Phone: (518) 473-6579, Fax: (518) 474-8998.

Photo by Roger Luther at www.nysAsylum.com

Photo by Roger Luther at http://www.nysAsylum.com

New York State Senate Bill 840-A Becomes Law-Needs Work!

Bill 840-A was signed by Governor Andrew Cuomo, and became law on August 18, 2016. Unfortunately, after reading this new law, unless I have interpreted it incorrectly, it looks nothing like the broad scoped original bill that I had proposed to Kate Munzinger, Senator Joseph Robach’s Chief of Staff, on August 22, 2011. Tim Ragazzo wrote the bill, and Senator Joseph Robach, introduced it to the New York State Senate on March 23, 2012. Even though I initiated the original bill S6805-2011-12, which you can read below, it was changed without my knowledge into something that I do not recognize. Sadly, I cannot take any credit for this new law as I had nothing to do with it. The narrow scope of this law implies that the names of tens of thousands of patients who died in New York State Hospitals/Asylums of the past, will NOT be released to the public; they will remain anonymous unless EACH former state hospital has a “CEMETERY ORGANIZATION” and even then they will be released “ONLY FOR THE PURPOSE OF INSCRIBING THE NAME OR DATE ON A GRAVE MARKER.” So much for finding out who is buried in the Kings Park State Hospital Cemetery which is now being used as a youth baseball field! I wasted more than eight years of my life writing letters, talking to representatives, writing a book, and blogging, for nothing.

Photo by Roger Luther at www.nysAsylum.com

Photo by Roger Luther at http://www.nysAsylum.com

STATE OF NEW YORK 840-A, 2015-2016 Regular Sessions, IN SENATE (PREFILED) January 7, 2015, Introduced by Sen. ROBACH — read twice and ordered printed, and when printed to be committed to the Committee on Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities — reported favorably from said committee and committed to the Committee on Finance — committee discharged, bill amended, ordered reprinted as amended and recommitted to said committee AN ACT to amend the mental hygiene law, in relation to patients interred at state mental health hospital cemeteries THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, REPRESENTED IN SENATE AND ASSEMBLY, DO ENACT AS FOLLOWS:

Section 1.   Section 7.09 of the mental hygiene law is amended by adding a new subdivision (k) to read as follows:

(K) NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER LAW, RULE OR REGULATION, ON REQUEST BY A REPRESENTATIVE OF A CEMETERY ORGANIZATION OR FUNERAL ESTABLISHMENT, THE COMMISSIONER AND DIRECTORS OF OFFICE FACILITIES SHALL RELEASE TO THE REPRESENTATIVE THE NAME, DATE OF BIRTH, OR DATE OF DEATH OF A PERSON WHO WAS A PATIENT AT THE FACILITY WHEN THE PERSON DIED, UNLESS THE PERSON OR THE PERSON’S GUARDIAN PROVIDED WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS TO THE FACILITY NOT TO RELEASE SUCH PERSON’S NAME OR DATES OF BIRTH AND DEATH. A REPRESENTATIVE OF A CEMETERY ORGANIZATION OR A FUNERAL ESTABLISHMENT MAY USE A NAME OR DATE RELEASED UNDER THIS SUBDIVISION ONLY FOR THE PURPOSE OF INSCRIBING THE NAME OR DATE ON A GRAVE MARKER.

S 2. This act shall take effect on the one hundred twentieth day after it shall have become a law. Effective immediately, the addition, amendment and/or repeal of any rule or regulation necessary for the implementation of this act on its effective date is authorized to be made on or before such date.”
SOURCE: https://www.nysenate.gov/legislation/bills/2015/s840/amendment/a

03-The Asylum Officials-Wayne E. Morrison, Sr. 1978

03-The Asylum Officials-Wayne E. Morrison, Sr. 1978

Here is Original Bill: 6805-2011

STATE OF NEW YORK 6805 IN SENATE, March 23, 2012, Introduced by Sen. ROBACH — read twice and ordered printed, and when printed to be committed to the Committee on Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities AN ACT to amend the mental hygiene law, in relation to patients interred at state mental health hospital cemeteries THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, REPRESENTED IN SENATE AND ASSEMBLY, DO ENACT AS FOLLOWS:

Section 1. The mental hygiene law is amended by adding a new section 33.27 to read as follows:

S 33.27 RELEASE OF CERTAIN PATIENTS’ NAMES AND DATES OF BIRTH AND DEATH.

(A) TO MARK HEADSTONES OR OTHERWISE MEMORIALIZE PATIENTS INTERRED AT STATE MENTAL HEALTH HOSPITAL CEMETERIES, THE DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HYGIENE SHALL MAKE AVAILABLE THE NAME, DATE OF BIRTH AND DATE OF DEATH OF PATIENTS BURIED IN STATE MENTAL HEALTH HOSPITAL CEMETERIES FIFTY YEARS AFTER THE DEATH OF A PATIENT.

(B) FOR THE PURPOSES OF THIS SECTION, THE TERM “STATE MENTAL HEALTH HOSPITALS” SHALL MEAN ANY STATE-FUNDED INSTITUTION TO CARE FOR AND HELP TREAT THE MENTALLY ILL OR DEVELOPMENTALLY DISABLED IN NEW YORK STATE. SUCH TERM SHALL INCLUDE, BUT NOT BE LIMITED TO FORMER ASYLUMS FOR THE INSANE, SUCH AS THE NEW YORK STATE LUNATIC ASYLUM, UTICA STATE HOSPITAL, WILLARD ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE, WILLARD STATE HOSPITAL, NEW YORK STATE INEBRIATE ASYLUM, BINGHAMTON ASYLUM FOR THE CHRONIC INSANE, BINGHAMTON STATE HOSPITAL, BUFFALO STATE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE, NEW YORK STATE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE, BUFFALO STATE HOSPITAL, NEW YORK STATE ASYLUM FOR IDIOTS AND THE ASYLUM FOR IDIOTS IN ALBANY.

S 2. This act shall take effect on the one hundred twentieth day after it shall have become a law. Effective immediately, the addition, amendment and/or repeal of any rule or regulation necessary for the implementation of this act on its effective date is authorized to be made on or before such date.EXPLANATION–Matter in ITALICS (underscored) is new; matter in brackets [ ] is old law to be omitted. LBD13640-01-1” SOURCE: https://www.nysenate.gov/legislation/bills/2011/s6805/amendment/original

Utica Crib 2

Utica Crib 2

Here is Original Bill: 840-2015

STATE OF NEW YORK 840 IN SENATE 2015-2016 Regular Sessions, IN SENATE (PREFILED), January 7, 2015, Introduced by Sen. ROBACH — read twice and ordered printed, and when printed to be committed to the Committee on Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities AN ACT to amend the mental hygiene law, in relation to patients interred at state mental health hospital cemeteries THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, REPRESENTED IN SENATE AND ASSEMBLY, DO ENACT AS FOLLOWS:

Section 1. The mental hygiene law is amended by adding a new section 33.27 to read as follows:

S 33.27 RELEASE OF CERTAIN PATIENTS’ NAMES AND DATES OF BIRTH AND DEATH.

(A) TO MARK HEADSTONES OR OTHERWISE MEMORIALIZE PATIENTS INTERRED AT STATE MENTAL HEALTH HOSPITAL CEMETERIES, THE DEPARTMENT SHALL MAKE AVAILABLE THE NAME, DATE OF BIRTH AND DATE OF DEATH OF PATIENTS BURIED IN STATE MENTAL HEALTH HOSPITAL CEMETERIES FIFTY YEARS AFTER THE DEATH OF A PATIENT.

(B) FOR THE PURPOSES OF THIS SECTION, THE TERM “STATE MENTAL HEALTH HOSPITALS” SHALL MEAN ANY STATE-FUNDED INSTITUTION TO CARE FOR AND HELP TREAT THE MENTALLY ILL OR DEVELOPMENTALLY DISABLED IN NEW YORK STATE. SUCH TERM SHALL INCLUDE, BUT NOT BE LIMITED TO FORMER ASYLUMS FOR THE INSANE, SUCH AS THE NEW YORK STATE LUNATIC ASYLUM, UTICA STATE HOSPITAL, WILLARD ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE, WILLARD STATE HOSPITAL, NEW YORK STATE INEBRIATE ASYLUM, BINGHAMTON ASYLUM FOR THE CHRONIC INSANE, BINGHAMTON STATE HOSPITAL, BUFFALO STATE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE, NEW YORK STATE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE, BUFFALO STATE HOSPITAL, NEW YORK STATE ASYLUM FOR IDIOTS AND THE ASYLUM FOR IDIOTS IN ALBANY.

S 2. This act shall take effect on the one hundred twentieth day after it shall have become a law. Effective immediately, the addition, amendment and/or repeal of any rule or regulation necessary for the implementation of this act on its effective date is authorized to be made on or before such date.

EXPLANATION–Matter in ITALICS (underscored) is new; matter in brackets [ ] is old law to be omitted. LBD03851-01-5”
SOURCE: https://www.nysenate.gov/legislation/bills/2015/s840/amendment/a

The list of these former New York State Hospitals includes but is not limited to: Binghamton, Buffalo, Central Islip, CreedmoorDannemora, EdgewoodGowanda, Hudson River, Kings Park, Long Island, Manhattan, Marcy, Matteawan, Middletown, Mohansic, Pilgrim, Rochester, St. Lawrence, SyracuseUtica, and Willard

The Feeble-Minded (Intellectual Disabilities) and Epileptic Custodial Institutions of New York includes but is not limited to: Craig Colony for Epileptics, Letchworth Village for Epileptics & Intellectually Disabled, Newark State School for Intellectually Disabled Women, Rome State School for Intellectually Disabled Adults & Children, and Syracuse State School for Intellectually Disabled Children. There may be more.

NO TOUR at The Willard State Hospital Campus in May 2016

According to Teri Weaver at tweaver@syracuse.com, “No tour of Willard insane asylum for 2016, NY state says” As far as I know, the cemetery is always open to those who wish to visit and pay their respects.

Willard at newyorkupstate.com/finger-lakes

Willard at newyorkupstate.com/finger-lakes

THE BAD NEWS: Thousands Remain Nameless!

The New York State Office of Mental Health put on a fabulous “show” at the Willard State Hospital Cemetery on Saturday, May 16, 2015, by allowing ONE man, Lawrence Mocha, an inmate and hospital grave digger, who died 47 years ago, to be remembered with a beautiful ceremony that included a plaque displaying HIS NAME, DATE OF BIRTH, DATE OF DEATH, AND LOCATION OF GRAVE! OH MY GOD! IS HELL FREEZING OVER?

Plaque Honoring Lawrence Mocha

Plaque Honoring Lawrence Mocha

Mr. Mocha was ONE OUT OF 5,776 buried at this cemetery. This ceremony was hosted by the Willard Cemetery Memorial Project. The only reason that the OMH let this ceremony take place was because they were humiliated by an article published in The New York Times by journalist, Dan Barry. Why wasn’t Mr. Barry fined $10,000 by the OMH as they so often threaten? Might they be afraid of The Times and its readership of 1 million people a day?

It has been my belief that the New York State Legislature should pass into law two bills:

  1. New York State needs a law that would release the names, dates of birth and death, and location of graves of ALL deceased patients of ALL 21 former New York State Hospitals and 5 Custodial Institutions which SHOULD BE AVAILABLE AND ACCESSABLE ON THE OMH Website as a searchable data base. All these cemeteries are INACTIVE! There is no reason why anyone has to wait 50 years to be remembered!

AND

  1. An additional law that would release to descendants the medical records and photographs of loved ones who were incarcerated at these institutions 50 years after the patients’ death with the same wording as provided by the new Federal HIPAA legislation of March 2013.

The New York State Office of Mental Health WILL NOT ALLOW the burial ledger of the Willard State Hospital or any New York State Hospital or Custodial Institution to be released to the public. The names of the deceased and the location of their graves must be made available to the public in order that people may find their ancestor, visit the grave, and purchase a headstone if they wish to do so. Withholding their names is unacceptable, dehumanizing, and insulting; it only serves to feed the stigma associated with mental illness. Many of these former patients died over one hundred years ago; they are not under the care of the Office of Mental Health or any government agency. It is important and necessary for a new law in order to restore the dignity and personhood of the THOUSANDS of people who were incarcerated and died at former New York State Hospitals (formerly Insane Asylums), and Custodial Institutions. When the bodies of the inmates/patients were not claimed by family members, they were buried in anonymous, unmarked graves on state owned and county cemeteries. They deserve to have their names remembered and available to the public in a searchable database located at The New York State Office of Mental Health Website.

The NYS Office of Mental Health always sites “Protected Health Information” for their reason as to why they cannot release patient names. Let’s start at the beginning by defining the following: What Is Personal Identifiable Information? AND, What Is Protected Health Information? If you take the time to read these two definitions, you will CLEARLY SEE THAT THESE LAWS AND PROVISIONS WERE WRITTEN FOR THE LIVING, NOT FOR THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN DEAD LONGER THAN 50 YEARS!!!! A BURIAL PERMIT, which can be obtained in every County Clerk’s Office in the State of New York, is not covered under any state or federal privacy law. Old Books, Burial Ledgers, and The United States Federal and State Censuses which are released after 70 years, are not covered under any law that I know of. Birth, Death, and Marriage Certificates can be obtained from the NYS Vital Records page. 145 years have passed since the first person was buried at the Willard Asylum in 1870. It is time to let those nameless souls rest in peace and be remembered!

Anyone can sit at the County Clerk’s Office and sort through all the records pertaining to any state hospital or custodial institution but the information contained in the burial ledgers would be much more accurate and less time consuming. An inscribed headstone or a name on a searchable database would not positively identify a specific individual UNLESS it stated the city, county, state, country of origin, parents, spouses, sibling names, etc. And even then, you would have to claim that person as your ancestor and notify the media that he or she was diagnosed with a mental illness in order for you and your family to be “stigmatized.” Come On! This Is The Twenty-First Century! Privacy ends at death and according to the new HIPAA Law, Confidentiality Of Medical Records only lasts for 50 years after death of an individual.

The real reason why the OMH does not want to publish this information is simple. They don’t want you to know how badly they’ve screwed up!

EXAMPLES:
I have been told over and over again that one of the cemeteries on the former KINGS PARK STATE HOSPITAL property is being used as a youth baseball field. This had to have been approved by the NYSOMH. As far as I know, the bodies were never moved. I wonder how the families of patients buried at this site would feel if they knew that their loved one’s grave was being disrespected in this way? If this information is incorrect, I apologize.

What about all the VETERANS from the Civil War, WWI, WWII, Korea, and Viet Nam that are buried in these former NYS Hospital Cemeteries. Don’t they have a right to be remembered with a marker?

The NAMES of deceased patients buried at the former BINGHAMTON STATE HOSPITAL Cemetery are already online in a searchable database. The burial ledger was found in the trash. AND, in 2014, Glass Photo Negatives of Patients were discovered in a pile of pigeon poop at Binghamton’s Historic Asylum. If these old photographs and burial ledgers are so important, then why were they found in the trash?

At the former MIDDLETOWN HOMEOPATHIC STATE HOSPITAL patient records were left in boxes which were photographed and put on the internet. Looks like the staff left in a hurry! These facilities closed in 1995.

Someone from the former GOWANDA STATE HOSPITAL gave the burial ledger to The Museum of disABILITY History for safe keeping. Thank God! The names are on display at the museum.

Why is the largest mental health facility in New York State the Prison at Riker’s Island?

If medical records for the recently departed are protected, then why was Sally Green’s Anonymous Burial and a detailed story printed all over the news in February 2012?

Lastly, and most importantly, The OMH would have to release 21 State Hospital and 5 Custodial Institution Burial Ledgers. Do they even have them?

The list of these former New York State Hospitals includes but is not limited to: Binghamton, Buffalo, Central Islip, CreedmoorDannemora, EdgewoodGowanda, Hudson River, Kings Park, Long Island, Manhattan, Marcy, Matteawan, Middletown, Mohansic, Pilgrim, Rochester, St. Lawrence, SyracuseUtica, and Willard

The Feeble-Minded (Intellectual Disabilities) and Epileptic Custodial Institutions of New York includes but is not limited to: Craig Colony for Epileptics, Letchworth Village for Epileptics & Intellectually Disabled, Newark State School for Intellectually Disabled Women, Rome State School for Intellectually Disabled Adults & Children, and Syracuse State School for Intellectually Disabled Children.

Please check out and share the NAMES page.

More Reading:

Mental Illness & Ignorance

They’re Buried Where? May 24, 2013

Mental Illness & Prisons

My Story